There are som ahadith that explicitly prohibit fasting on certain days. These are:
- The days of 'Id: All scholars agree that such a fast is prohibited. It does not matter if the fast is obligatory or voluntary. 'Umar testifies: "The Messenger of Allah has forbidden fasting on these two days. Converning the 'id of breaking the fast, it is for you to break your fast [of Ramadan]. On the 'id of sacrifice, you should eat from what you sacrifice." This is related by Ahmad, an-Nasa'i, at-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah.
- The days of tashreeq (that is, the three days following the 'Id al-Adha): It is not permissible to fast during the three days following the 'Id al-Adha /after Hajj/. Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of allah, upon whom be peace, sent 'Abdullah ibn Hudhaqah to announce at Mina: "You are not to fast these days. They are the days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah." This is related by Ahmad with a good chain. The Shaf'iyyah allow fasting on the days of tashreeq if there is some reason for the fasting - that is, if it is due to an oath, for expiation, or for making up a missed day of Ramadan. Those fasts that hav eno special reason behind theym are not allowed, and there is no disagreement on this point. The Shaf'iyyah applied the same reasoning that they used in saying that prayers that are performed for a specific reason are allowed to be performed during the prohibited times of prayer.
- It is prohibited to single out Friday as a day of fasting: The day of Friday is a kind of weekly 'id for Muslims and, therefore, it is prohibited to fast on that day. Most scholars say that this prohibition is one of dislike, not one of complete forbiddance. (According to Abu Hanifah and Malik, it is not disliked, but the evidence presented disagrees with their opinion on this matter). If one fasts on the day before or after it, or if it is a day that one customarily fasts on (for example, the 13th, 14th, or 15th of the month), or if it is the day of 'Arafah or 'Ashurah, then it is not disliked to fast on such a Friday. 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah entered the room of Juwairiyah bint al-Harith while she was fasting on a Friday. He asked her: "Did you fast yesterday?" She asnwered, "No." He said: "Do you plan to fast tomorrow?" She answered, "No." Therefore he said: "Then break your fast." This is related by Ahmad and an-Nasa'i with a good chain.
- It is also forbidden to fast every day of the year: It is forbidden to do so because there are certain days of the year on which one is not allowed to fast. The Messenger of Allah said: "There is no [reward for] fasting for the one who perpeutally fasts." This is related by Ahmad, al-Bukhari, and Muslim.
- It is prohibited to fast consecutive days withous eating at all [al-wisal]: Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said: "Do not perform al-wisal." He said that three times and the people said to him: "But you perform al-wisal, O Messenger of Allah!" He said: You are not like me in that matter. I spend the night in such a state that Allah feeds me and gives me to drink. Devote yourselves to the deeds which you can perform." This is related by al-Bukhari. The scholars say this prohibition implies that the act is disliked. Ahmad and Ishaq say that it is allowed to fast until the time of the pre-dawn meal as long as it is not a hardship on the one fasting. This opinion is based on what al-Bukhari recorded on the authority of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'Do not make al-wisal. If one of you insists on making al-wisal, he may continue his fast [after sunset] until the time of the pre-dawn meal.'"
Some related stuff:
- Are you permitted to break the fast?
- When is the arrival of Ramadan? How do you know?
- Ramadan! Why do I fast? What is the purpose of it?
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